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Table of Contents
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 51-53

Hypokalemic paralysis due to primary sjögren syndrome: Literature review


Department of Neurology; Department of Medicine, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil

Date of Submission17-Oct-2019
Date of Acceptance26-Dec-2020
Date of Web Publication12-Feb-2020

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Jamir Pitton Rissardo
Rua Roraima, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul
Brazil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_135_19

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How to cite this article:
Rissardo JP, Caprara AL. Hypokalemic paralysis due to primary sjögren syndrome: Literature review. Indian J Med Spec 2020;11:51-3

How to cite this URL:
Rissardo JP, Caprara AL. Hypokalemic paralysis due to primary sjögren syndrome: Literature review. Indian J Med Spec [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 24];11:51-3. Available from: http://www.ijms.in/text.asp?2020/11/1/51/278088



Dear Editor,

We read an article in “Indian Journal of Medical Specialities” with great interest. Singh et al., in 2019, reported a case of an adult female who presented with acute quadriplegia and respiratory distress. A diagnosis of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) type 1 (distal) was made. On further tests, antiSjögren's syndrome (SS)-A/Ro and antiSS-B/La were strongly positive. A diagnosis of SS with hypokalemia due to RTA and demyelinating pure motor axonal polyneuropathy was made. After 3 months, the patient returned with complaints of progressive weakness of limbs and breathing difficulty. Thus, she was diagnosed with Guillain–Barré syndrome.[1]

Hypokalemic paralysis due to primary SS was rarely reported in literature. We identified 59 individuals, and we added more one unreported case from our institution [Table 1]. A literature search was performed in Embase, Google Scholar, Lilacs, Medline, Scielo, and ScienceDirect, on a set of terms that included hypokalemic paralysis, SS, and RTA. We included only articles in English or Spanish with a complete report of the treatment.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32]
Table 1: Reports of patients with hypokalemic paralysis due to primary Sjögren syndrome

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We would like to address some important topics extracted from [Table 1]. First, the majority of the individuals were from Asian countries, which accounted for at least one in every three individuals reported. This could be explained by a high prevalence of SS in these countries, even though the rates of autoimmune diseases be the same between the American and Asian populations.[6] Second, it is observed a female prevalence in the studies with this severe complication of SS. In the reports with male, nephrocalcinosis was more frequent, but worse follow-up was markedly noted with females.[9]

Three possible pathophysiological mechanisms were already described to explain the occurrence of hypokalemic paralysis due to primary SS. In this context, an assumption based on antibodies to H+-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase leading to a urine pH >5.5 and a positive urinary anion gap was proposed.[15] The second hypothesis could be a defective kinase related to a component of the regulator of the ATPase.[24] However, these were only observed in a portion of the reported cases.[21] Another possible explanation is the antibodies anti-SSA/Ro, leading to a direct distal RTA.[9]

Financial support and sponsorship

None.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Singh VP, Khullar J, Garg A, Vardani A. Acute quadriplegia: An interesting case with etiological and pathophysiological disparity. Indian J Med Spec 2019;10:162.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.
Carminati G, Chena A, Orlando JM, Russo S, Salomón S, Carena JA. Distal renal tubular acidosis with rhabdomyolysis as the presenting form in 4 pregnant women. Nefrologia 2001;21:204-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Chang YC, Huang CC, Chiou YY, Yu CY. Renal tubular acidosis complicated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Pediatr Neurol 1995;13:52-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Cheng CJ, Chiu JS, Chen CC, Lin SH. Unusual cause of hypokalemic paralysis in aged men: Sjögren syndrome. South Med J 2005;98:1212-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Comer DM, Droogan AG, Young IS, Maxwell AP. Hypokalaemic paralysis precipitated by distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to Sjögren's syndrome. Ann Clin Biochem 2008;45:221-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Dasari S, Naha K, Vivek G, Acharya V, Hande M. Primary presentation with acute flaccid quadriparesis in Sjogren's syndrome sans sicca. BMJ Case Rep 2013;2013. pii: bcr2012008172.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Eriksson P, Denneberg T, Eneström S, Johansson B, Lindström F, Skogh T. Urolithiasis and distal renal tubular acidosis preceding primary Sjögren's syndrome: A retrospective study 5-53 years after the presentation of urolithiasis. J Intern Med 1996;239:483-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Fujimoto T, Shiiki H, Takahi Y, Dohi K. Primary Sjögren's syndrome presenting as hypokalaemic periodic paralysis and respiratory arrest. Clin Rheumatol 2001;20:365-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Garza-Alpirez A, Arana-Guajardo AC, Esquivel-Valerio JA, Villarreal-Alarcón MA, Galarza-Delgado DA. Hypokalemic paralysis due to primary Sjögren syndrome: Case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Rheumatol 2017;2017:7509238.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Goroshi M, Khare S, Jamale T, Shah NS. Primary Sjogren's syndrome presenting as hypokalemic paralysis: A case series. J Postgrad Med 2017;63:128-31.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
11.
Kawashima M, Amano T, Morita Y, Yamamura M, Makino H. Hypokalemic paralysis and osteomalacia secondary to renal tubular acidosis in a case with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Mod Rheumatol 2006;16:48-51.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Khandelwal D, Bhattacharya S, Khadgawat R, Kaur S, Tandon N, Ammini AC. Hypokalemic paralysis as a presenting manifestation of primary Sjögren's syndrome: A report of two cases. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012;16:853-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Liao CY, Wang CC, Chen IH, Shiang JC, Liu MY, Tsai MK. Hypokalemic paralysis as a presenting manifestation of primary Sjögren's syndrome accompanied by vitamin D deficiency. Intern Med 2013;52:2351-3.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Logan JL, Ahmed J. Critical hypokalemic renal tubular acidosis due to Sjögren's syndrome: Association with the purported immune stimulant echinacea. Clin Rheumatol 2003;22:158-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Mugundhan K, Vasif MM, Nidhin PD, Prakash G, Balamurugan N, Sivakumar KG, et al. Hypokalemic paralysis in Sjogren's syndrome secondary to renal tubular acidosis. Journal of Association of Physicians of India. 2016;64:72.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Muthukrishnan J, Dawra S, Marwaha V, Narayanan CS. Sjögren's syndrome presenting as hypokalemic paralysis. Med J Armed Forces India 2015;71:S172-4.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Naik M, Bhat T, Naqash M, Qadri M, Yusuf I, Ali I, et al. Hypokalemic quadriparesis in an elderly female. Indian J Nephrol 2012;22:402-3.  Back to cited text no. 17
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
18.
Paliwal VK, Rai AS, Kumar S, Verma R, Agarwal V. Proximal muscle weakness with overlying hypokalemic periodic paralysis in Sjögren syndrome: Report of 6 cases. J Clin Rheumatol 2020;26:24-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Palkar AV, Pillai S, Rajadhyaksha GC. Hypokalemic quadriparesis in Sjogren syndrome. Indian J Nephrol 2011;21:191-3.  Back to cited text no. 19
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
20.
Prakash EB, Fernando ME, Sathiyasekaran M, Bhoopathy RM, Jayanth JJ, Samuel J. Primary Sjögren's syndrome presenting with distal, renal tubular acidosis and rhabdomyolysis. J Assoc Physicians India 2006;54:949-50.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Rajagopala S, Danigeti G, Subrahmanyan D. An unusually dry story. Indian J Crit Care Med 2015;19:550-3.  Back to cited text no. 21
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
22.
Rao N, John M, Thomas N, Rajaratnam S, Seshadri MS. Aetiological, clinical and metabolic profile of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis in adults: A single-centre experience. Natl Med J India 2006;19:246-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Sarah S, Lijo G, Sukanya E, Rajasekaran D. Renal tubular acidosis due to Sjogren's syndrome presenting as hypokalemic quadriparesis: A report of two cases. Indian J Nephrol 2015;25:386-7.  Back to cited text no. 23
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24.
Seirafian S, Shafie M, Abedini A, Pakzad B, Roomizadeh P. Recurrent attacks of hypokalemic quadriparesis: An unusual presentation of primary Sjögren syndrome. Intern Med 2016;55:1797-800.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
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