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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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April-June 2019
Volume 10 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 55-115

Online since Friday, May 24, 2019

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Burden of antenatal depression and its risk factors in Indian settings: A systematic review Highly accessed article p. 55
Priyanka Arora, Bani Tamber Aeri
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_36_18  
According to the National Mental Health Survey-2016, one in every ten persons in India suffers from depression and anxiety, and 20% of these depressed Indians are pregnant women and new mothers. This systematic review was conducted to assess the burden of depression and risk factors associated with it among the Indian pregnant women. Electronic database (PubMed and Google Scholar) was used to identify any retrospective/prospective observational research studies published in English language which specifically examined antenatal depression (AD) among Indian women using a validated scale. A total of 995 citations were retrieved, out of which only eight studies were included. The prevalence of AD was found to be ranging from 9.18% to 65.0% in northern, western, and southern part of India. However, there is a lack of research on AD from the eastern part of country. The factors such as unplanned pregnancy, multigravidity, history of abortion, advancing pregnancy and age, lower/lower-middle socioeconomic status, poor education status of women, unemployment, bad relations with in-laws, male gender preference, and demand for dowry were significant predictors for AD. Therefore, it is necessary to provide the health-care professionals and women with the knowledge about these factors for early prediction of women at high risk of AD, which might help them to get timely intervention and reduce the burden of depression. Furthermore, the results from this review implicate that more research is needed in future in this field to further validate the findings of the present review.
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Therapeutic benefits of lenalidomide in hematological malignancies p. 61
Mohammed Shafi Abdulsalam, Durai Mavalavan Vasudevan Manimoliyan
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_8_19  
Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent, which has action against most of the hematological malignancies. Apart from its immunomodulation, it has other properties such as antiproliferation and antiangiogenesis. It is not only effective in myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloma, recent studies show its effective action on newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory lymphomas as well. Addition of lenalidomide to standard therapy is associated with lesser central nervous system relapse in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Lenalidomide shows promising results in Hodgkin's lymphomas and leukemias (acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia). Dose escalation may be an option in nonresponders with caution in side effects.
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Sources and toxicological effects of lead on human health p. 66
Bikash Debnath, Waikhom Somraj Singh, Kuntal Manna
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_30_18  
Lead toxicity is one of the most hazardous metal toxicities. It can enter the body through lead-based paint, dust, water, soil, tableware, and folk medicines. Children are especially prone to develop lead toxicity. Lead acts by inducing oxidative stress due to inefficient replenishment of glutathione. Lead can also cause hemolytic anemia due to disruption of the cellular membrane by lipid peroxidation. Lead toxicity also affects neurotransmitter levels and causes severe health issues related to organ damage, some even leading to death. The main aim of this review article is to summarize lead toxicity detection, its sources, and its mechanism including various toxicological effects on human health. It also focuses on the prevention and treatment of lead toxicity.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Correlation between nephropathy and ophthalmic complications in cases of sickle cell anemia: An entangled association p. 72
Aditi Pareek, Aditya Khandekar, Sourya Acharya, Pravin Tidake, Samarth Shukla
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_4_19  
Background: Sickle cell disease commonly presents with unpredictable episodes of vasocclusion and pre mature RBC destruction, which manifest as acute pain and tissue ischemia. In kidneys, endothelial dysfunction occurs in the nephron leading to microalbuminuria, vaso-occlusion, ischemia, infarction, and ultimately nephron loss. Proliferative and non-proliferative retinal changes can also occur, due to similar underlying pathophysiology of vasospasm. Aims and Objectives: To study the correlation between Sickle Cell Nephropathy and Ophthalmic Complications in cases of Sickle Cell disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty five adults aged 18 to 60 years, having Sickle Cell disease were selected as study participants. Complete blood analysis was carried out, with assessment of Urine Albumin: Creatinine ratio and ophthalmic findings, studied by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Results: Patients were divided into two categories: Category I comprising of 7 patients who were admitted to the Medicine ICU with Crisis, and Category II comprising of 28 clinically stable patients. 5 patients from Category I (71.4%), and 2 patients from Category II (7.1%), were found to have findings of peripheral retinopathy. Category I patients had received a mean of 6.17 ± 2.14 blood transfusions, Category II patients had received 2.89 ± 1.81 transfusions, difference being statistically significant. Mean Hb in Category I patients was 6.37 ± 0.35 gm/dl, compared to 7.95 ± 0.81 gm/dl in Category II patients. The mean Urine Albumin/ Creatinine ratio of patients having Ophthalmic manifestations was found to be 286.71 ± 74.75 mg/g, while the mean Urine Albumin/ Creatinine ratio of patients with no Ophthalmic manifestations was found to be 31.82 ± 4.48 mg/g, difference being statistically significant. Conclusion: Sickle Cell nephropathy and retinopathy appear to stem as manifestations of a common underlying mechanism of sickle vasculopathy, and thus can be studied as markers for each other.
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The knowledge, attitude, and practices relating to tuberculosis among drug-resistant tuberculosis patients Highly accessed article p. 76
Kevisetuo Anthony Dzeyie, Saurav Basu, Tanzin Dikid
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_31_18  
Introduction: A tuberculosis patient infects several healthy people prior to the diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Indiscriminate spitting in the community has been identified as a challenge to the prevention of tuberculosis; however, knowledge is still limited in terms of actual practices. Methodology: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study at a tertiary care hospital to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practices relating to tuberculosis by interviewing patients of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis using a semi-structured questionnaire. We evaluated knowledge of tuberculosis on etiology, mode of spread, treatment factors, attitudes on the importance the respondent attributed to the factor and practices on adherence to treatment, and hygiene for the prevention of spread including safe sputum disposal. Results: We enrolled 250 patients (165 males) with a mean age of 29 ± 11 (mean ± standard deviation) years. On knowledge of tuberculosis, most of the patients had correct knowledge regarding tuberculosis symptoms (241, 96%), mode of spread (235, 94%), and correct duration of treatments 246 (98%) for drug sensitive tuberculosis. On attitude, all the patients consider adherence to their prescribed anti-tubercular treatment, 246 (98%) on covering mouth while coughing or sneezing and 239 (96%) on safe disposal of sputum as important. However, only 45 (18%) reported practicing correct sputum disposal and 66 (26%) patients reported disposing of their sputum in the open. Conclusion: This study suggests that despite good knowledge and attitude, there is a lack in practice of safe disposal of sputum by tuberculosis patients. Efforts toward sensitization regarding safe disposal of sputum need to be strengthened.
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Association of demographic and lifestyle factors with semen quality of men with fertility problems attending infertility center in North Karnataka p. 79
Makhadumsab M Toragall, Sanat K Satapathy, Girish G Kadadevaru, Murigendra B Hiremath
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_3_19  
Background: Male factor is responsible for 50% of infertility cases. Universal deterioration in human sperm quality occurring in recent times is receiving a greater attention. The impact of numerous lifestyle factors including age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure to occupational and environmental pollutants is unfavorable to male reproductive health. The present study intended to find out the association of demographic, occupational, and several lifestyle factors on semen quality of men diagnosed with infertility. Materials and Methods: The study enlisted 432 men diagnosed with fertility issue. Couples were administrated with a structured questionnaire to provide their demographic attributes and medical and reproductive health information. The collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0. Results: The mean age of men was 34.44 ± 0.21 years at the time of consultation. Among seven semen abnormalities, asthenozoospermia was recorded the highest (30.09%). Most of the participants were having secondary education (32.26%), working as laborers (26.62%), and were having multiple addictions (27.77%). Decreased sperm count and motility was noticed among advanced age group and those with addictions. Different occupational statuses had substantial correlation with the sperm quality of participants. Conclusion: The incidence of male infertility and the potent lifestyle aspects studied have displayed an association with each other. However, influence of these aspects on impairment of male fertility can be overcome with modification toward healthier lifestyle.
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The cognitive profile and executive function of progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy patients p. 84
Divya Goel, Arvind Vyas
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_29_18  
Introduction: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are two relatively common forms of atypical parkinsonism seen in movement disorder clinics. This study provides an insight into the cognitive dysfunction in these two diseases. Aims: This study aims at assessing the cognitive and executive dysfunction and investigating the relationship between age, education, Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA), and frontal assessment battery (FAB) score in a group of Indian patients with MSA and PSP. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based observational study with the recruitment of patients of MSA and PSP based on consensus criteria and The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Society for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy criteria, respectively. A total of 50 patients of MSA and PSP admitted or attending outpatient department in the Department of Neurology, SMS hospital, Jaipur, were analyzed for cognitive and executive functions between December 2016 and December 2018 using MOCA and FAB. The Student's t-test was used. The level of significance was determined as itsP value withP < 0.05 taken as statistically significant. Results: On MOCA, impairment was observed in 24% of cases of MSA and 92% of cases of PSP. On FAB, impairment was observed in 20% of cases of MSA and 72% of cases of PSP. Conclusions: Cognitive dysfunction is a major finding in PSP and MSA patients. Thus, cognitive dysfunction in a patient does not rule out MSA as considered in the previous literature and is an important diagnostic finding in PSP; yet requires future research on a larger scale.
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Prevalence of intestinal parasites and risk factors with emphasis on Enterobius vermicularis in children of daycares and preparatory schools of the city of Khodabandeh, Northwestern Iran p. 89
Khadejeh Salahi, Amir Javadi, Mehrzad Saraei
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_22_19  
Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are considered as a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children in the developing countries. The present study was aimed at examining the status of IPIs in the children of daycares and preparatory schools in the city of Khodabandeh located at Northwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 520 daycare and preprimary school-age children in the northwest of Iran were tested for the presence of intestinal parasites using direct smear and the standard formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation techniques. Furthermore, the specific “scotch tape” test was used to identify the eggs of pinworm Enterobius vermicularis. Results: Of total 520 children, 55 cases (10.6%) were infected to intestinal parasites, including 9.2% monoparasitism and 1.4% double-parasitism. The prevalence rate for protozoan infections was 7.3% and 3.65% for helminths. Giardia lamblia infection was shown to have the highest prevalence rate among intestinal protozoa by 3.26%. The prevalence rate for E. vermicularis was 3.5% using “scotch tape” test and stool examination. There was a significant correlation between infection with intestinal parasites and daycares (P = 0.004). A significant inverse correlation was established between anal itching (as a sign of E. vermicularis infections) and hand-washing in children using soap or hand-washing liquid (P = 0.004). Conclusions: Infection with intestinal parasites in children of nursery schools and preschools of the study region, compared to the previous situation, is considerably decreased.
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Insulin resistance as a predictor of sensory neuropathy in prediabetes p. 95
Amrinder Singh, Ajay Chauhan, Parul Goyal, Jasmeet Kaur, Priyamvadha Ramesh
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_41_18  
Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the association of insulin resistance with sensory neuropathy in prediabetes. Materials and Methods: Fasting serum insulin levels were measured and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated in all patients. These were compared in prediabetic patients having sensory neuropathy to those who did not have sensory neuropathy as determined by vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) measured using Digital Biothesiometer. Furthermore, direct correlation between insulin resistance and VPTs was checked. Results: A total of 60 prediabetic cases were included in this study. Among the study population, the age distribution ranged from 35 years to 60 years with the mean age of 48.68 years. Male and female formed 65% and 35% of the study population, respectively. The maximum fasting serum insulin levels were 21.8 mIU/L, and the minimum fasting serum insulin levels were 3.5 mIU/L, with the mean value being 10.61 ± 4.99 mIU/L. The maximum HOMA-IR was 6.4, and the minimum was 0.986, with the mean value being 2.81 ± 1.37. Among all the prediabetic patients, 43.3% of patients had neuropathy according to VPTs measured using Biothesiometer. T-test analysis suggests that mean fasting serum insulin levels (P = 0.026) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.032) were significantly higher in patients with neuropathy than patients without neuropathy. VPTs were found to have statistically significant positive correlation with fasting serum insulin levels (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.317 [R], 0.296 [L];P = 0.013 [R], 0.022 [L]) and HOMA-IR (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.299 [R], 0.281 [L];P = 0.02 [R], 0.03 [L]). Conclusion: Insulin resistance, quantified with the help of the index, HOMA-IR, has an important role in the development of this sensory neuropathy.
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Correlation between serum lipid fractions and radiological severity in patients with drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis: A cross-sectional pilot study p. 99
Alam Nawaz, Manel Arjun Nayak, Subhangi Thakur Hameer, Ashwin Kamath, Ajit Mahale
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_1_19  
Background: We aimed to determine if serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI), which are important in maintaining immunity, have any impact on the radiological severity in patients with drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (DR-TB). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted over 2 years in adults with newly diagnosed DR-TB. The radiological severity of the disease was determined using a chest X-ray (CXR) scoring formula. Correlation between the lipid fraction levels, BMI, and the CXR scores was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Thirty-three patients were included in the study. A significant negative correlation was seen between the CXR severity scores and total cholesterol (r = −0.546,P = 0.001), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = −0.479,P = 0.005), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = −0.431,P = 0.012), and BMI (r = −0.352,P = 0.044). Conclusions: Low serum cholesterol levels and low BMI were associated with an increased radiological severity which, in turn, could result in increased infectivity. Adequate nutritional supplementation in the diet of patients to increase BMI, and serum cholesterol levels, could potentially decrease the severity, and also consequently, transmission, and incidence of DR-TB.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Presternal bronchogenic cyst: A rare presentation p. 105
Suhas Jajoo, Samarth Shukla, Sourya Acharya
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_32_18  
Among the various congenital anomalies of the respiratory system, the extrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst is a rare pathologic lesion. The bronchogenic cyst is a developmental anomaly, occurring due to malformation of ventral foregut during the first 6 weeks of the intrauterine life. The cystic abnormality presents in infancy, children, and often in young adults. A case of 27-year-old male presented with subcutaneous swelling in the presternal area. The nodular swelling was excised and subsequently sent for surgical pathology examination. The cystic swelling was diagnosed on histopathology as a cutaneous bronchogenic cyst.
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Worm causing diabetes p. 108
Akanksha Singh, Ajay Chauhan, Amrinder Singh, Parul Goyal, Piyush Jain
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_42_18  
Hydatid disease or echinococcosis is one of the oldest known zoonotic diseases. Although known to be found in liver and lungs, these cysts are rarely found in the pancreas. We report a patient who not only had hydatid cyst in the pancreas but also pancreatitis and subsequently diabetes because of it.
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Anemia in pregnancy: Think beyond iron deficiency p. 111
Faisal A Memon, Vikram A Londhey, Raju J Nagara
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_13_19  
We hereby describe a rare case of delta beta (δβ)-thalassemia as a cause of anemia in a 2-month pregnant female who was diagnosed as homozygous δβ-thalassemia after gene mutation studies. δβ-thalassemia is an unusual variant of thalassemia with elevated level of fetal hemoglobin. Homozygous patients of this disorder, unlike β-thalassemia, show mild anemia and give a clinical picture similar to that of thalassemia intermedia. However, δβ-thalassemia heterozygotes clinically show the characteristics of thalassemia minor.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Exploring the data required for evaluation of a competency-based medical education curriculum in India p. 114
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
DOI:10.4103/INJMS.INJMS_31_19  
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