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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 87-94

Depression, anxiety, and stress among general public of india during post-COVID-19 second wave: A web-based cross-sectional survey


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rural Development Trust (RDT) Hospital, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pharmacy Practice, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Arsi University, Assela, Ethiopia
4 Department of Pharmacology, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Narayana Goruntla
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER) – Autonomous, Anantapur - 515 721, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/injms.injms_103_21

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Background: Evidence suggests that one-third of respondents had a significant psychological impact in the lockdown period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This indicates a need for longitudinal assessment of the psychological needs of the public to plan holistic interventions. Aim: To investigate depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) levels among the general public post-COVID-19 second wave. Materials and Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among the general public who were aged above 15 years. The data were collected through online mode by providing a link to fill Google Form. The survey tool was disseminated in various messenger groups and social media networks. The survey tool comprises demographics, COVID-19 stressors, and DAS Scale 21 (DASS-21). Multi and Univariate linear regression analysis was used to correlate patient characteristics and COVID-19 stressors with DASS-21 subscales. Results: A total of 2515 (males = 1274; females = 1241) people participated in this web-based survey. The mean age of the study respondents was 31.3 ± 13.4 years. The mean scores of depression, anxiety, and stress were 6.8 ± 8.6, 5.0 ± 7.3, and 7.3 ± 8.6, respectively. The majority of the participants are normal in all sub-scales of DASS-21. Very few are experiencing symptoms of severe or extremely severe depression (4.2%, 4.3%), anxiety (3.3%, 6.9%), and stress (3.0%, 2.3%). Geriatrics, females, health-care workers, homemakers/unemployed/retired people, rural residents, and people suffering from co-morbidities have a significant elevation of DAS scores with a P < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though most of the respondents are free from the DAS symptoms, few are still (post-COVID-19 second wave) experiencing symptoms of severe or extremely severe DAS subscales. More interview-based and probability sampling future studies are warranted to minimize the biases present in the study.


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